--
 Archival Sources for the Study 
 of Polish Canadians
   Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2002
BASED ON THE MYRON MOMRYK'S ARCHIVAL SOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF POLISH CANADIANS; PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF CANADA, OTTAWA 1987
BRIEF SURVEY OF THE POLISH CANADIAN ARCHIVAL HERITAGE IN CANADA

The record of the Polish experience in North America has its origins at the beginning of the European exploration of the New World. Names suggesting Polish origins are found in several American colonial documents. In the United States, there are also substantial records of individual Poles who have played a prominent role throughout American history. In Canada, among the earliest references are the names of some soldiers that served in the de Meuron and de Watteville regiments during the War of 1812 which suggest Polish origins. Some of these soldiers later participated in Lord Selkirk's colonization projects in what is now Manitoba but unfortunately they did not leave behind any records of their activities.

During the nineteenth century, Poland experienced a turbulent historical evolution punctuated by wars and uprisings in attempts to free Poland from foreign occupation and reunite the partitioned lands. Each uprising and insurrection produced a wave of Polish political exiles that sought refuge in western Europe and the United States. A few of these individuals eventually found refuge in Canada.

One of the more prominent exiles was Sir Casimir Gzowski who fled Poland after the collapse of the 1830-1831 insurrection. In a few cases such as that of Sir Casimir Gzowski, archival documents have provided some information of their careers and activities; however, records regarding many of the first Poles in Canada have not survived.

In 1858, families from the Kashub region of northern Poland settled in the Madawaska River Valley region of Ontario. More settlers followed and by the 1880s there was a large Polish community that has continued to the present day. A Roman Catholic parish was founded in 1872, and records of this and other parishes form a treasured part of the Polish Canadian archival heritage. By 1872, 52 Polish families had settled in Berlin (now Kitchener) and during the 1870s some Polish immigrants settled in the Toronto area. Polish workers from Europe and the United States were attracted to Canada by the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s. However, census records do not show the Poles as a separate group. In 1901, the Poles were listed separately for the first time and there were 6,285 recorded then. With the opening of the Canadian West the largest wave of Polish immigration began. By the outbreak of World War I in 1914, over 100,000 Poles entered Canada. Some of these immigrants continued their journey to the United States to join the large Polish communities in northern industrial centres.

This wave consisted mainly of peasants from Galicia and most of them settled on the prairies where they claimed homesteads. Among these immigrants were some agricultural and industrial workers who hoped to make their fortune in Canada and then return to Poland. These workers settled in the industrial cities of eastern Canada where the small developing Polish communities assisted the new immigrants in adjusting to Canadian life. Gradually Polish stores, boarding houses, mutual aid societies and other formal and informal associations developed and became the first building blocks of the organized Polish community in Canada.

The Roman Catholic Church has played a historic role in the defense and maintenance of Polish culture in Poland and this strong union between religion and culture has continued to dominate Polish community life in Canada. The large majority of Polish immigrants supported the various social and cultural institutions sponsored by the Roman Catholic Church. ..The Catholic Weekly was one of the two most important Polish newspapers during this period. The other newspaper, Czas (Time), dealt with secular issues and assisted Poles in Canada to adjust to Canadian life.

World War I had a profound effect on the Polish community in Canada. The large wave of immigration ceased. The Polish community organized to assist the Canadian war effort and Polish volunteers served in the Canadian Expeditionary Forces. Also, Polish soldiers were trained in Canada for the new Polish Army being formed on the Western Front in France.

After the collapse of the Imperial Russian, Imperial German and Austro- Hungarian Empires, Polish Canadians supported the establishment of the independent Polish Republic on November 11, 1918. Some Polish Canadians served in the Polish Armed Forces, defeating the attempts of hostile neighours to invade the territory of the new state.

The new Polish government was faced with numerous problems of organization and consolidation. These problems were compounded by the need for constant vigilance against hostile neighbours. It was in this climate of insecurity and international tension that the second large wave of immigrants came from Poland to Canada. Immigrants came from overpopulated areas of Poland and contained a large percentage of minority groups.

Between 1919 and 1931, approximately 52,000 Poles entered Canada. Many of these immigrants settled in industrial centres throughout Canada. Some of these immigrants continued their journey to the United States. This second wave of immigrants tended to have a higher level of national awareness since many had actively served in the Polish struggle for independence. The Polish government, through its consulates in Canada, attempted to aid the new immigrants in their adjustment to Canadian life. The organized Polish community assisted the new immigrants and established a multitude of benevolent, fraternal, cultural, dramatic and political societies. Branches of Polish organizations headquartered in the United States were also established in Canada. Local organizations affiliated to form national organizations. Each organization attempted to purchase or build a com- munity hall. These halls became the local cultural centres where the most important events in the community took place. In some communities, these halls were used for religious services if there were no local Polish churches. Each hall had a small library where books in English and Polish were kept and with time local records and archives were established. Most of these records are still with the local organizations although some are now found in archival institutions. Other collections of records and archives are in private possession or have been lost or destroyed through neglect.

By 1929, the Catholic Church had 33 Polish parishes and 157 Polish missions across Canada. In 1933, Catholic groups formed the Association of Poles in Canada. By 1939, the Polish Friendly Alliance of Canada had 17 branches in Ontario and published its own weekly newspaper, the Zwiazkowiec.

The invasion by Nazi Germany of Poland in September 1939 started World War II. Immediately the entire Polish community devoted its activities to the Canadian war effort. Many Polish Canadians joined the Canadian Armed Forces and others contributed their time and efforts on the home front. By the end of 1939, Poland was occupied by the armed forces of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. The Polish Armed Forces were dispersed in underground units in Poland, in prisoner-of-war camps in Germany and the Soviet Union, or in exile in England and France. A Polish Government-in- Exile was established in London, England.

In 1941-1942, over 400 Polish technicians and 265 scientists came to Canada to work in the war industries. Here they formed the Association of Polish Engineers in Canada to maintain contact and facilitate their adapta- tion to Canadian industry. These engineers with their families represented the beginning of the post-World War II wave of Polish immigration to
Canada.

Polish intellectuals in exile in Canada concerned with the destruction of Polish culture in Europe established, in 1943, the Polish Library and Polish Institute of Learning in Montreal. The Library continues to be a focus of Polish intellectual life in Canada and has also acquired a number of Polish archival collections.

In 1944, the Canadian Polish Congress (CPC) was formed as an umbrella organization to coordinate the activities of Polish organizations during the war. At the end of the war the CPC became involved in assisting Polish refugees and displaced persons. The CPC continues to represent Polish Canadian interests and assist Polish immigrants and refugees.

In 1944-1945, Poland was occupied by the advancing Soviet forces and a new Polish government was established at the end of World War II that subsequently became a member of the Warsaw Pact. In May 1946, over 2,800 demobilized Polish soldiers immigrated to Canada. In 1947, another 2,500 Polish Army veterans arrived from Europe. Many of these soldiers had already experienced Soviet prisons and chose not to return to a post-war Poland dominated by its eastern neighbour. Compared to previous waves of immigration, these veterans had a higher level of education and political and national consciousness. Some veterans, refugees and displaced persons who held prominent positions in pre-war Poland brought with them family and archival documents. The World War II veterans association, the Polish Combatants Association, formed the dynamic core of the post-war immigra- tion and provided several decades of community leadership.

During the period 1946-1952, Canada also admitted over 50,000 Polish Displaced Persons from Europe. A great majority of these immigrants still owed their allegiance to the Polish Government-in-Exile in London, England. These immigrants settled largely in eastern Canada in the various industrial centres. This wave of immigrants was composed of various segments of the Polish population, with those of peasant origin forming the majority. The arrival of many refugee Polish intellectuals greatly stimulated Slavic studies and in particular Polish studies at various Canadian universities.

New organizations were founded, mostly in eastern Canada, to meet the needs of the new immigrants. Many of these organizations have maintained a profound interest in events in Poland and have sought to influence Canadian public opinion and official policy regarding relations with the new Polish government. In addition to the Polish Combatants Association, there were Polish Branches of the Royal Canadian Legion across Canada. The JAssociation of Polish Engineers in Canada, which was established in Canada; in 1941, continued its activities after the war, including in its membership Canadian technicians and engineers of Polish descent. In 1956, the Polish IResearch Institute was established in Toronto under the sponsorship of the Polish Canadian Congress to study the Polish past in Canada and the development of the Polish Canadian community. The Polish Research Institute coordinates research activities and the acquisition of archival mate- rial in the Polish community. 
There is also a Canadian branch of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences.

After the war, the new Polish government restricted immigration to pre- serve manpower for the reconstruction of Poland. In 1956, these restrictions were eased and a small number of immigrants began arriving in Canada. From 1956, the annual number of immigrants to Canada from Poland has fluctuated but since 1980 the number has increased dramatically. Political and economic conditions in Poland had obliged many Poles to leave for exile, repeating a historic trend in Polish and also Polish Canadian history that originated over 150 years ago. These recent immigrants are very concerned with political and economic conditions in Poland and continue their efforts to provide information on these conditions to Canadians of Polish descent and to Canadians in general.. The University of Toronto Library has estab- lished a special collection of documentation regarding recent Polish political and economic events.

The Royal Commission of Bilingualism and Biculturalism greatly stimu- lated ethnocultural studies, in particular research on Polish Canadians. The Canadian government declared its multicultural policy in 1971 and Polish Canadians have been among the most active supporters of this policy and its implementation. Polish archival materials are now recognized as an integral part of Canada's archival heritage. In recognition of this fact, the Public Archives of Canada instituted the National Ethnic Archives Program in 1972. The Public Archives began an active program of acquiring Polish archival collections and this role is now shared with several provincial archival institutions, in particular the Archives of Ontario in association with the Multicultural History Society of Ontario.

The presence of the large Polish community in the United States, number- ing over six million persons with a well-developed community institutional structure, has attracted Polish Canadian interest and attention and in some cases archival collections. Also some Polish community leaders in Canada have donated their archival collections to the Polish Government-in-Exile in London, England.

The Polish Canadian community now numbering over 400,000 is faced with many obstacles in its struggle to maintain and develop the Polish culture in Canada. Assimilation trends and the gradual loss of its most active members have obliged some Polish organizations to develop new strategies and methods to meet the needs and interests of the changing community. Some of the older organizations founded during the early years of Polish settlement in Canada have disappeared or were reconstituted to reflect the interest of the modern Polish urban communities.

All Polish organizations continue their efforts to maintain Polish culture and traditions in Canada and an important part of these efforts includes the preservation of the Polish archival heritage in Canada. Although work in this area has been in progress for over ten years, much work still is required at the local and national levels.

The preservation of the Polish archival heritage continues to be one of the main objectives of the Public Archives of Canada. This guide will hopefully encourage further preservation of archival records and a wider study of the Polish experience in Canada.
 
 

RESEARCH AT THE PUBLIC ARCHIVES OF CANADA

The Public Archives of Canada (PAC) is a federal government department that serves as the national archival institution for the historical records of the federal government and preserves documents and private papers of individ- uals and organizations of national interest that have contributed to the development of Canadian society. Through the National Ethnic Archives Program, begun in 1972, the Public Archives acquires and preserves for use by researchers records of national significance relating to the Polish Cana- dian community.

Staff archivists in the Public Archives Building, 395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, can be consulted from 8:30 a.m. till 4:45 p.m. Some research rooms are open to registered researchers 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Researchers are urged to contact the archivist responsible for the Polish Archives prior to their visit to the Public Archives for information regarding access to Polish collections. Access to certain collections requires written permission from the donors. Researchers should also note that portions of the Public Archives' holdings have been microfilmed and may be borrowed through the interlibrary loan program without visiting Ottawa.

Information of particular interest to researchers in Polish Canadian his- tory can be found among the holdings of the various divisions of the Public Archives: the Government Archives Division, the Manuscript Division, the National Film, Television and Sound Archives, the National Map Collection, the Art and Photography Division, and the Public Archives Library.

The National Library of Canada (NLC) is a separate government department, located in the same building as the Public Archives of Canada. Here researchers have access to the Polish newspaper collection, and publications and periodicals containing information on Polish Canadians. For informa- tion on Polish newspaper holdings at the National Library, researchers are advised to consult the Checklist of Canadian Ethnic Serials, compiled by Ruth Bogusis et al. (Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1981). This publication lists over 40 Polish newspapers, journals, bulletins and other serials published in Canada, and provides information on the location of these periodicals in other institutions.
 
 

MAJOR POLISH COLLECTIONS IN THE MANUSCRIPT DIVISION
 

THE ASSOCIATION OF POLISH ENGINEERS IN CANADA (APEC)(est. 1941)     MG 28, V 53

In 1941, Canada and the Polish Government-in-Exile signed an agree- ment providing for the admission of Polish engineers into Canada for war-related work. The APEC was founded in 1941 and its aims are to maintain contacts among Polish Canadian engineers and to develop Canadian industry, research and institutions of higher learning by organizing meetings, lectures and congresses. The APEC has branches in Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa and Sarma.

Originals,1930-1978,2.72m; microfilm, 1937-1938, reeIM-3729; finding aid no. 1030.

Records of Head Office, 1941-1967, 1.2 m; Ottawa Branch, 1952-1974, 61 cm; Montreal Branch, 1953-1968, 40 cm; Toronto Branch, 1951-1964,8 cm; resource records, 1951-1975, 13 cm; Sarnia Branch, 1962-1974,30 cm.
 

BRZEZINSKI, Tadeusz (b. 1896) MG 31, H 77

Born in Poland, Tadeusz Brzezinski entered the Polish diplomatic service and was Consul-General in Montreal during World War II. He remained in Canada after the war and for a short time was director of Immigrant Aid Services for Guardian Trust Company in Montreal. In II 1954, he was director of research in the Bibliotheque Saint-Sulpice and when this library was transformed into the Bibliotheque nationale in 1967, Brzezinski was appointed cultural officer. In this capacity he coordinated various projects to expand services to the public among them the Federation des centres de la province de Quebec. During his life in Canada, he was an active member of the Polish community.

Originals, n.d., 1939-1970, 10 cm; microfilm, 1931-1970, reel M-4611.

Correspondence, clippings, programs and other documents relating to Brzezinski's consulship, 1939-1941; his position at Guardian Trust Company, 1948-1950; and his activities in the Progressive Con- servative Party, 1948-1952; includes microfilm of three scrapbooks, 1931-1970.
 

CANADIAN POLISH CONGRESS, MG 28, V 10

The Canadian Polish Congress (CPC) was founded as an umbrella organization to coordinate the activities of Polish organizations in promoting the Canadian war effort during World War II. After the war, the CPC became involved in assisting Polish refugees and immigrants. The aims of the CPC are to coordinate the efforts of its member organizations, to further the interests of the Polish Canadian community and to maintain and develop Polish Canadian culture. The CPC acts as the I main spokesman for the Polish Canadian community.

Originals, n.d., 1933-1976,3.95 m.

The formation of the CPC, 10 cm; Head Executive Board, minutes and agendas, 12 cm; annual meetings of council, 15 cm; Court of Arbitration, 3 cm; Information Commission, 30 cm; Education, Culture, Youth Committee, 35 cm; millenium preparations and other celebrations, 35 cm; Head Executive Board financial records, reports and corre- spondence, 18 cm; conventions, 30 cm; general correspondence, 95 cm; contacts abroad, 18 cm; correspondence with General S. Sznuk, 4 cm; Zwiazkowiec, 7 cm; Canadian and immigration issues, 36 cm; the Polish Question, 15 cm; relief to Poland, 22 cm; Canadian Polonia, 10 cm.
 

CHUCHLA, Walter F. (b. 1904) MG 31, H 58

Born in Galicia, Walter F. Chuchla immigrated to Canada in 1926. He worked as a farm labourer and later as a miner in Coleman, Alberta. In 1944, he moved to Calgary where he continued his active participation in the Polish Canadian community. He also contributed to the Polish press.

Originals, n.d., 1925-1976, 10 cm; photocopy, 1975, 1 page.

Official documents and certificates, 1925-1974, 1 cm; autobiographical and biographical material, n.d., 1975-1976, 2 cm; draft notes and manuscripts, n.d" 1946-1970, 1 cm; newspaper clippings, n.d., 1926-1976,3 cm; printed matter, 1937-1974,3 cm.
 

CZAS (est. 1914), Newspaper Collection MG 28, V 100

CZAS was established in 1914 and is the oldest Polish-language news- paper in Canada. The newspaper is published in Winnipeg, which was the centre of the Polish community in Canada until World War II. CZAS provided leadership to the community in western Canada especially during the war and continues to publish for the Polish Canadian community emphasizing recent political events in Poland.

Originals, 1931-1973,3 m.

Minutes, 3 cm; general ledgers, 3 cm; Polish War Relief Committee, 7 cm; government agencies and departments, 7 cm; correspondence, 73 cm; advertising, 48 cm; miscellaneous, 7 cm; subscription orders, 7 cm; calendars, 7 cm; bulletins, 7 cm; financial records, 1.31 m.
 

DABROWSKI, Kazimierz (1902-1983) MG 30, B 88

Educated as a pyschiatrist in Europe and North America, Dr. Kazimierz Dabrowski practiced in Poland from 1931 until his emigration to Canada in 1964. In Canada, he taught at the universities of Alberta and Laval. He had published articles and studies in many languages on the Positive Disintegration Theory.

Originals, n.d., 1930-1975,2 m.

Correspondence, 14 cm; miscellaneous, 2 cm; manuscripts, papers and notes by K. D~browski, 84 cm; academic papers, articles and other material, 20 cm; international congresses, 7 cm; miscellaneous aca- demic papers, reviews and related materials, 14 cm; papers, articles and studies by K. Dabrowski, 10 cm; other papers, articles and studies, 10 cm; thesis, 20 cmi publications, 20 cm.
 

DZIERZEK, Edward W. (b. 1915) MG 31, D 126

Born in Wilno, Edward W. Dzierzek served as a regular officer in the Polish Armed Forces from 1937. After 1939, he was a prisoner-of-war in the Soviet Union where he later joined the reformed Polish Army under General Anders. He served in the Middle East and in Italy. After demobilization with the rank of Captain (later Major) he worked and studied in England. He immigrated to Canada in 1953 and from 1962 he taught in the Ontario Secondary School system until his retirement. In Canada, he was active in several Polish and community organizations. He wrote Free the White Eagle, published in 1981, based on his experiences as a Polish prisoner-of-war in the Soviet Union.

Originals, 1939-1982, 20 cm.

Personal information, documentation and correspondence, eth- nocultural and other organizations, periodicals and publications, manuscripts and publication -Free the White Eagle, miscellaneous, newspapers.
 

FRIENDS OF THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY IN POLAND, INC. . MG 28, V 142

The association was formed to assist the Catholic University in Poland through financial and other support and also provide scholarships to Canadian students wishing to study at the Catholic University.

Originals, 1978-1983, 1 m.

Minutes, correspondence, reports, financial statements, photographs, newspaper clippings, brochures and other material.
 

GZOWSKI, Sir Casimir S. (1813-1898) MG 24, E 9

Casimir Gzowski was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, the son of Stanislaus Count Gzowski, a Polish officer in the Imperial Russian Guard. Casimir Gzowski was exiled from Russia after the 1830 Polish .uprising and went to New York in 1833 and then to Canada in 1841. Gzowski was employed as an engineer in the Canadian Department of IPublic Works until 1848. In 1853, he organized the firm Gzowski and .Co., which built the Grand Trunk Railway from Toronto to Sarnia. He also built the internatio~al bridge at Niagara (1871-1873), and was the first president of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers.

Originals, 1845, 1852-1871, 8 cm.

Letterbook, 1845, kept by Gzowski while engineer in charge of the Road Office, Canada West (volume 1; 3 cm); agreements, contracts, powers of attorney and specifications relating to various railways, 1852-1871, and miscellaneous letters, 1852-1863 (volume 2; 5 cm).
 

HOLY GHOST PARISH, Winnipeg, Manitoba (est. 1899) MG 9, E 5-4

Holy Ghost Parish, founded in 1899, is the oldest Polish Roman Cath- olic parish in western Canada. In the early 1900s, it served as a base of operations for Oblate missionaries working in Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and the northwestern United States. During its early years the parish also served other Roman Catholics of east European origin.

Originals, 1884-1974, 7 cm; microfilm, 1898-1960, reel M-4409.

School reports, 1887-1889, 1907, 13 pages; official documents, 1897-1912,1954,5 cm; baptismal certificates, 1894-1911, 1925-1934, 51 pages; publication, Jubilee Memorial Book, 1974, 1 cm; Codex Histor- ires, 1893-1960 (microfilm reel, M-4409).
 

IWANIUK, Waclaw (b. 1915) MG 31, H 72

Waclaw Iwaniuk was educated in Warsaw and Cambridge, England. He served in the Polish Diplomatic Corps and as an officer in the Polish Armed Forces during World War II. He immigrated to Canada in 1948 and continued to write and publish his poetry and literary works. He is also a literary critic and essayist for various Polish newspapers in Canada and abroad. He is a member of several international literary societies and writers unions and in 1966 helped found a group of poets and writers in Canada. During his career as one of the foremost Polish poets and writers outside Poland, he has published numerous articles and publications.

Originals, n.d., 1952-1976,8 cm.

Correspondence, 1961-1974,2.5 cm; announcements, invitations, memberships, 1970-1976, 1 cm; publications, n.d., 1952-1975,4 cm; biographical notes, 1958-1975, .5 cm.
 

KIERZKOWSKI, Alexandre-Edouard (1816-1870) MG 27, I, E 32

Alexandre-Edouard Kierzkowski was born in the Grand Duchy of Poznan. He served, in the Polish Army and received a certificate as engineer from the Ecole centrale des arts et manufactures in Paris in 1838. He emigrated to the United States in 1841 and came to Canada in 1842. He was elected to the Legislative Council in 1858, the Legislative Assembly in 1861 and to the House of Commons in 1867. He died at St. Ours, Quebec.

Originals, 1823-1958, 40 cm.

Alexandre-Edouard Kierzkowski, official documents and correspondence, 1823-1867, 2.5 cm (volume 1); Virginie de Saint-Ours- Kierzkowska, poetry, travel journal, correspondence, 1852-1894, 17.5 cm (volumes 1-2); Aline Kierzkowska-Rolland, poetry, auto- graphs, documents, 1878-1898, 7.5 cm (volume 3); Kierzkowski fam- ily, certificates, documents, memoires, correspondence, 1823-1946, 2.5 cm (volume 3); other material, correspondence, notes, genealogical charts, 1860-1958, 10 cm (volume 4).
 

KOREY-KRZECZOWSKI, George (Jerzy) (b. 1921) MG 31, D 64

Born in Kielce, Poland, George Korey-Krzeczowski was educated at ]agiellonian University and other universities. He served in the Polish Diplomatic Corps, but resigned in 1951 for political reasons and immi- grated to Canada. He became a management consultant and held various positions in a number of firms. In 1971, he joined Ryerson Poly technical Institute in Toronto and held various administrative posi- tions. He was active in the Polish Canadian community and served as national president of the Canadian Polish Congress. Korey- Krzeczowski is also the author of several volumes of poetry in Polish.

Originals, 1958-1975, 10 cm;photocopies, 1973-1975,9 pages.

Correspondence, 1958-1975,2.5 cm; newspaper clippings and press releases, 1974-1975, 5 cm; speeches and lectures, 1972-1975, 1.5 cm; printed matter, 1972-1975, 1 cm.
 

KOS-RABCEWICZ-ZUBKOWSKI, Ludwik (b. 1914) MG 31, H 65

Born in Pavlovsk, Russia, Ludwik Kos-Rabcewicz-Zubkowski received his B.A. (1932) and his LL.M. (1937) from the University of Warsaw and his LL.D. (1948) from the University of Paris. He emigrated to Canada in 1948 and joined the staff of the Universities of Montreal and Ottawa where he lectured on the law of the USSR and other east European countries. He was admitted to the Bar of the Province of Quebec in 1954. From 1970 until his retirement he taught at the Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa.

Originals, n.d., 1966-1975, 7.5 cm; photocopies, n.d., 1975; 37 pages.

Offprints of various articles, n.d., 1965-1975, 7.5 cm; photocopies of family history and bibliography, n.d., 1975, 37 pages.
 

LEPAN, Arthur D. (1885-1976) MG 30, E 277

Lt. Col. A.D. LePan served in the Canadian Army from 1915 to 1919. He was appointed Camp Commandant upon the formation of the Polish Army Camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake in September 1917 and served in this capacity until the closing of the Camp in March 1919. The Camp provided basic training for Polish soldiers and Canadians and Americans of Polish descent. These soldiers then served overseas with Polish units of the French Army. Over 20,700 recruits were trained at the Camp or other depots en route to France.

Originals, 1917-1919,5 cm.

A two volume diary kept by Lt. Col. LePan as Commandant of the Polish Army Camp at Niagara-on-the-Lake. The diary is a complete record of Camp events and in addition to lists of Camp personnel, it contains information on the training and movement of troops and arrangements of supply and accommodation.
 

LI-RA-MA (Russian Consular Records) MG 30, E 406

Papers of Sergei Likhachev, Konstantin Ragozin and Harry Mathers, who were members of the Imperial Russian Consular Corps in Canada at the beginning of the century, and who continued to offer consular services after the 1917 revolution at the request of the Canadian government.

Microfilm, 1900-1922.

Nominal files on over 10,000 immigrants, including many Poles, who came to Canada from the Russian Empire; correspondence, official documents, reports, questionnaires, photographs and other material accumulated in the course of their activities as Russian consuls in Canada.
 

MAKOWSKI, William B. (b. 1924) MG 31, H 57

William Makowski was born in Poland and emigrated to Canada in 1946. He studied at the University of Montreal and did post-graduate work in ethnic studies. In 1958, he became a teacher and during his career has published numerous articles and publications on the Polish Canadian community including History and Integration of Poles in Canada (1967).

Originals, 1935-1975,35 cm.

Correspondence, biographical information, newspaper clippings and cards; minutes, newsletters, bulletins, commemorative booklets, and other documents relating to Polish Canadian organizations and churches; notes, articles, speeches and other research material used in the preparation of History and Integration of Poles in Canada, printed matter.
 

MUTUAL BENEFIT SOCIETY OF ST. JOSEPH (est. 1886) MG 28, V 54

The Mutual Benefit Society of St. Joseph was founded in 1886 by Polish 1 Canadians in Berlin (later Kitchener, Ontario). This society offered life I insurance to its members. In 1949, this society merged with the St. ' John's Society to form the Society of St. John and St. Joseph.

Originals, 1886-1931,3.5 cm.

Three cash books, 1886-1922,3.5 cm; constitution, 1930, 36 pages.
 

NEDZA, Michal (b. 1900) MG 30, C 118

MichalNt{dza, born in Poland, emigrated to Canada in 1927. An active member of the Polish Canadian community, he was an influential figure in the Polish Alliance Friendly Society of Canada between 1928 and 1937. In 1933, he helped launch the newspaper Zwiazkowiec, the official organ of the Alliance. In 1937, he was one of the founders of the Polish National Union of Canada. He also played an influential role in the publishing of the newspaper Glos Polski. Nedza was one of the community leaders who transformed the Federation of Polish Societies into the Canadian Polish Congress (CPC). He chaired the founding convention of the CPC in May 1944 in Toronto. He was also active in many other Polish cultural and charitable committees.

Originals, 1932-1974, 17 cm.

Correspondence, organizational material, booklets and printed matter.
 

OUR LADY QUEEN OF POLAND, PARISH, Wilno, (est. 1876)    MG 9, D 7-50 Ontario

This Roman Catholic parish was established in 1876 and was the first Polish language parish in Canada. Originally named St. Stanislaus Kostka Parish, it was renamed Our Lady Queen of Poland, after a fire had destroyed the church building in 1936.

Originals, 1881-1975, 21 cm.

Baptismal registers, 1881-1940; marriage registers, 1881-1959; burial records, 1881-1975; first communion records, 1946-1956; and confirmation records, 1947-1959.
 

PODOSKl, Wiktor (1895-1960) MG 30, E 230

Born in Wolhynia, Wiktor Podoski entered the Polish diplomatic service in 1925. He held different diplomatic positions in Ottawa froro 1939 to 1944. After 1945, he worked in the Canadian Department of Labour and was later engaged in business. He was active in the Polish Canadian community in Ottawa and worked for the safe return to Poland of the Polish Art Treasures.

Originals, 1920-1961, 1975, 24 cm.

Official and personal documents, 1935-1947, 1 cm; correspondence and notes, 1921-1961, 6 cm; diplomatic functions, 1939-1944, 1 cm; speeches, reports and articles, 1939-1959, 1 cm; newspaper clippings, n.d., 1949-1961, 15 cm.
 

POLISH ALLIANCE FRIENDLY SOCIETY OF CANADA (Zwiazek Polakow w Kanadzie) (est. 1922)  MG 28, V 55

The Polish Alliance Friendly Society was founded in Toronto in 1922 with the merger of the Sons of Poland and St. Stanislaw Kostka Society. In 1923, the Polish Progressive Society, an affiliate of the Polish Socialist Party, also joined the Alliance. Besides sickness and death insurance, the Alliance sponsors social and cultural activities in the Polish Cana- dian community. The Alliance has a ladies auxiliary, Kofo Polek, and an affiliated youth organization, the Polish Canadian Alliance Youth. The Polish Alliance Press publishes the Society's official newspaper, Zwiazkowiec, which is the largest Polish language newspaper in Canada.

Originals, 1907-1973, 11.28 m; finding aid no. 370.

Precursors of the Alliance, 1907-1937, 23 cm; Polish Alliance Friendly Society, 1922-1974,9.74 m; Polish Alliance Friendly Society -Local Branches, 1921-1972, 1.31 m.
 

POLISH ALLIANCE PRESS LTD. (est. 1938) MG 28, V 25

The Polish Alliance Press was founded in 1938 to continue the publication of Zwiazkowiec (The Alliancer), which was founded in 1933 and published by the Polish Alliance Friendly Society of Canada. The Press also publishes books in Polish and English on Polish themes.

Originals, 1957-1968, 10 cm.

Immigrant memoirs, 1957-1958, 1967-1968, correspondence and essays by immigrants describing their experiences in Canada written for two contests sponsored by Zwi1Jzkowiec; photographs of various community activities.
 

POLISH CANADIAN ASSOCIATION (est. 1931) MG 28, V 36

The aims of the Polish Canadian Association (Calgary), founded in 1931, are social, educational and cultural.

Originals, 1931-1964,4.5 cm.

Constitution, 1932; minute books, 1931-1938, 1949-1952; and correspondence, 1941, 1956-1964.
 

POLISH CANADIAN CLUB (OTTAWA) (est. 1936) MG 28, V 34

The objectives of the Polish Canadian Club, founded in Ottawa in 1936, were social, cultural and political.

Originals and photocopies, 1975; 3 cm.

Outline of the Club's activities, photocopy of publication by Alexander Gwagnin, Kronika Sarmacyey europeyskiey (A Chronicle of European Sarmatia), Krakow, 1611.
 

POLISH CANADIAN SENIOR CITIZENS' CLUB, Calgary, Alberta  MG 28, V 97

Originals, twentieth century, 6 cm.

Memoirs, certificates, newspaper clippings and photographs.
 

THE POLISH SENIOR CITIZENS' ASSOCIATION, Ottawa, Ontario  MG 28, V 79

Community senior citizens' club. Originals, 1976, 1978, 5 cm.

Memoirs of members of the Association.
 

POLISH SOCIETY FOR BROTHERLY AID, Coleman, Alberta (est. 1916)   MG 28, V 37

The Polish Society for Brotherly Aid in Coleman, Alberta, was founded in 1916. It has social and cultural activities and administers a sickness, and funeral insurance fund for its members.

Originals, 1917-1928, 1936, 1938,2 cm.

Cash book, constitution and newspaper clippings.
 

PRZYGODA, Zdzislaw (b. 1913) MG 31, H 67

Born in Warsaw, he graduated from the Technical University of Danzig and the University of Munich. He was active in the Polish Under- ground and was imprisoned for his activities in 1942. He emigrated to Canada in 1952 and established an engineering consulting firm in 1954. He has been an active member of the Polish Canadian community.

Originals, n.d., 1958, 1966-1969, 10 cm.

Correspondence, memoranda, minutes, reports, financial records of the committee to build a statue honouring Sir Casimir Gzowski in Toronto; includes printed matter.
 

ROMER, Tadeusz (1894-1978) MG 31, D 68

Tadeusz Romer studied at the Universities of Lausanne and Fribourg. Following World War I, he was secretary of Roman Dmowski, the First Delegate of the Polish Government at the peace negotiations. He joined the Polish diplomatic service and was Poland's Minister Plenipotenti- ary in Lisbon (1935-1937), Ambassador to Japan (1937-1941), Ambassador to the USSR (1942-1943) and Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Polish Government-in-Exile in London (1943-1944). He immigrated to Canada in 1948 and taught at McGill University. In Canada, he was active in many Polish Canadian community organizations, including the Polish Council of National Unity and the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences in America, Canadian Branch.

Originals, 1913-1975,2.27 m; microfilm reels C-I0449, C-I0457; finding aid no. 1003.

Diplomatic activities, 1913-1974, 89 cm; Polonia in Diaspora, 1948-1975,52 cm; activities in Canada, 1951-1975,40 cm; academic- McGill University, 1948-1973, 13 cm; printed material, n.d., 1939-1973,33 cm.
 

ST. STANISLAUS-ST. CASIMIR'S PARISH (TORONTO) CREDIT UNION LTD. (est. 1945)   MG 28, V 70

Founded in 1945 by members of St. Stanislaus Polish Roman Catholic Parish, the society was incorporated as St. Stanislaus Parish (Toronto) Credit Union Ltd. Membership also included parishioners from the adjacent St. Casimir's Polish Roman Catholic congregation. In 1974, the name was changed to St. Stanislaus-St. Casimir's Parish (Toronto) Credit Union Ltd.

Originals, 1943-1974,21 cm.

Incorporation and by-laws, membership accounts and loans, annual report to the Ontario government, minutes and other documents of annual membership meetings, annual audited financial statements, printed annual reports and monthly newsletter, Biuletyn.

SALSKY, George (b. 1915) MG 31, D 119

George Salsky was born in Kiev and commissioned in the Polish Air Force in 1936. He escaped to France and later to England in 1939-1940 where he served as a pilot instructor. Discharged in 1948, he immi- grated to Canada in 1951 and worked with CBC International Service. In 1952, he joined the Department of National Defence and served there until his retirement.

Originals, 1918-1980,20 cm; published material and photographs, 60 cm.

Family papers, personal documents and certificates, correspondence, community activities in Great Britain, military photographs, newspaper articles and clippings, papers, reports and published material.
 

SZNUK, Stefan (1896-1986) MG 31, D 115

Born in Warsaw, Stefan Sznuk was a pioneer aviator and among the first to join the new Polish Air Force in 1919. He served in various capacities in Poland, England and Canada where he was demobilized at the end of World War II with the rank of Major General. He remained in Canada where he was active in the Polish community as Vice- President of the Canadian Polish Congress. He was awarded the Order of Canada in 1970 for his outstanding achievements and contributions to Canada.

Originals, n.d., 1931-1980,3.6 m.

Correspondence, reports, publications, newspaper clippings, pho- tographs and other documentation regarding the Canadian Polish Congress, the Polish Canadian community, the RCAF Association and other veterans groups. MG 30, C 137
 

SZYLLING FAMILY COLLECTION MG30, C 137

Lieutenant-General Antoni Szylling (1884-1971) was born near War- saw. In 1910, he married Zofia Bajkowski (1887-1944) and they had two sons, Jerzy and Karol. Szylling fought in the Polish Army during the Bolshevik-Polish War 1918-1921. A career officer, he commanded the "Krakow" Army during the campaign of September 1939. He was captured by the Germans and remained a prisoner-of-war for the duration of the war. In 1947, he emigrated to Canada and was active in the Polish community. Maria Roza Dobrowolska Frankowska Szylling (1896-1986) was of Polish parentage, born in the Kiev region. In 1922, she married the future Rear-Admiral Stefan Frankowski (1887-1940) and they had two children, Jolanta and Stefan. She came to Canada in 1940 and was active in the Polish community in Montreal.

Originals, 1885-1976, 1.46 m.

Lieutenant-General Antoni Szylling, personal and family papers, 1885-1971, 17 cm; correspondence, 1943-1971, 31 cm; publication, Moje Dowodzenie w 1939 R, n.d., 1940-1963,41 cm; additional material, n.d., 1940-1973,4 cm.
Maria Rose Szylling, personal and family papers, n.d., 1914-1976, 22 cm; correspondence, 1940-1975,4 cm; publication, Monografja Klucza Tulinskiego na Tie Genealogyi Wlascicieli, n.d., 1960-1968, 14 cm; addi- tional material, n.d., 1942-1975, 13 cm.
 

WALKOWSKI, Tadeusz (1898-1983)

Born in Gwozdziec, he served with the Polish Legion during World War I and with the Polish Armed Forces after 1918. In 1939-1940, he escaped to France and later England where he continued his military service. After the war, he remained in England and immigrated to Canada in 1954. He was active at the local and national levels in many community and veterans organizations.

Originals, 1898-1983, 2.8 m.

Correspondence, memoirs, personal documentation, articles and speeches, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, publications and other related material regarding Col. T. Walkowski's military career, Polish Armed Forces in England, veterans affairs and the Polish community in Canada.
 

WRAZEJ, Wladysfaw Jan (1894-1975) MG 31,0116

Born in Lwow, he served in the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1914-.1918 and the new Polish Army in 1918-1921. He graduated and worked as a metallurgist in Poland. He served in World War II in Poland and later in 20 England until 1948 when he was demobilized with the rank of Lieuten- ant-Colonel. He immigrated to Canada in 1951 with his family and worked with the Department of Mines and Technical Survey until he retired in 1964. In Ottawa, he was active in various Polish community organizations.

Originals, n.d., 1934-1975,20 cm.

Personal documentation, notebooks, correspondence, church activities, biographical information, drafts, papers, articles and publications.

ZIOLKOWSKA, Aleksandra (b. 1950) MG 31, 0 154
Born in Lodz, she graduated from universities in Lodz and Warsaw. She has published several literary and historical studies in Poland and Canada.

Originals, 1970-1983, 20 cm.

Research notes, manuscripts, autobiographical notes by Senator Stanley Haidasz and other material relating to the research and writing of the biography entitled Senator Haidasz.


OTHER COLLECTIONS IN THE MANUSCRIPT DIVISION THAT CONTAIN INFORMATION ON POLAND AND POLISH CANADIANS

BADZIOCH, Wladysfaw MG 55/30, no. 97
BOHDAN, J. MG 55/30, no. 98
BRZYSKI, Stanislaw and Rozalja MG 30, C 104
CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF SLAVISTS MG 28, I 238
CZUDEC, Zygmunt MG 55/30, no. 215.
GAJDA, Jan MG 30, C 107
HOLY TRINITY ROMAN CATHOLIC PARISH, Montreal MG 55/8, no. 4
INTERNATIONAL COMMITEE FOR SOVIET AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES (ICSEES) MG 28, I 386
KLISH, Michal MG 55/30, no. 79
KROCHMAL, Roman MG 30, C 111
KWACZEK, Joseph MG 30, C 112
LASZCZAK, Marija MG 30, C 113
MATEJKO, Alexander MG 31, H 64
MLIECZKO, Piotr MG 55/30, no. 103
NAMIESNIOWSKI, Konrad F. MG 30, E 293
NIEWCZAS, F.J. MG 30, E 244
OTTAWA VALLEY HISTORICAL SOCIETY MG 36, I, D 5
PAWLIKOWSKI, Josef MG 31, H 61
POLISH DANCE GROUP OF OTTAWA MG 28, V 132
POLISH MUTUAL AID SOCIETY MG 55/28, no. 26
ROZMUS, Karol MG 30, C 120
RYBIKOWSKI, Michal MG 30, D 220
ST. HYACINTH (ROMAN CATHOLIC) PARISH, Ottawa MG 9, D7-52
SMIALOWSKI, Arthur MG 31, J 5
STOCKI, Alexander T. MG 55/30, no. 107
STOCKI, Tomasz A. MG 30, C 124
SZEPTYCKI-POTWOROWSKI FAMILY MG 30, D 334
SZPAKOWSKI, Marceline MG 55/31, no. 25
TARAWA, Walenty MG 55/30, no. 96
UNUCKA, Adam MG 55/30, no. 216
WACHOWICZ FAMILY MG 35, no. 202
THE WHITE EAGLE POLISH SOCIETY, INC. MG 28, V 78
WLADYSLAW REYMONT FOUNDATION MG 55/28, no. 22
WOLNIK, Michalina MG 31, H 75
WYDRYCKI, Stanley MG 55/30, no. 95
ZABORSKI, Bogdan MG 31, H 150
ZHUK, Andry MG 30, C 167
 
 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AVERY, D.H. and J.K. FEDOROWICZ. The Poles in Canada. Canadian Historical Association, Ottawa, 1982.
BALAWYDER, Aloysius. The Maple Leaf and the White Eagles: Canadian Polish Relations, 1918-1978. New York, 1980.
HEYDENKORN, Benedykt. The Organizational Structure of the Polish Canadian Community. Toronto, 1979. ';
HEYDENDORN, Benedykt, ed.Memoirs of Polish Immigrants to Canada. Toronto, 1979.
HUBICZ, Edward. The Polish Church in Manitoba. London, 1960.
KOS-RABCEWICZ-ZUBKOWSKI, Ludwig. The Poles in Canada. Ottawa, 1968. 
KOZLOWSKI, Henryk Pawel. Union List of Polish Serials in Canadian Libraries. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1977.
MAKOWSKI, William. History and Integration of Poles in Canada. Lindsay, 1967. 
MATEJKA, Joanna, ed. Polish Settlers in Alberta: Reminiscences and Biographies. Toronto, 1979.
RADECKI, Henry. Ethnic Organizational Dynamics: The Polish Group in Canada. Waterloo, 1979.
RADECKI, Henry with Benedykt HEYDENKORN. A Member of a Distinguished Family, the Polish Group in Canada. Toronto, 1976.
THOMAS, W.I. and F. ZNANIECKI. The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (two volumes). New York, 1958.
TUREK, Victor. The Poles of Manitoba. Toronto, 1967.
TUREK, Victor. The Polish Language Press in Canada. Toronto, 1962.

Public Archives Publications that Contain Information on Ethnic Groups and in Particular Polish Canadians in Canada.

Foreign Topographic Map Series, Ottawa: PAC, 1986.
General Guide Series 1983: Federal Archives Division, Terry Cook and Glenn T. Wright, Ottawa: PAC, 1983.
General Guide Series 1983: Manuscript Division, Jean-Marie LeBlanc and Grace Hyam, Ottawa: PAC, 1984.
General Guide Series 1983: National Film, Television and Sound Archives, Jean T. Guenette, Ottawa: PAC, 1983.
General Guide Series 1983: National Map Collection, Gilles Langelier, Ottawa: PAC, 1985.
General Guide Series 1983: National Photography Collection, Christopher Seifried, Ottawa: PAC, 1984.
General Guide Series 1983: Picture Division, Raymond Vezina, Ottawa: PAC,  1984
General Guide Series 1983: Public Archives Library, Alex Delvaux, Yves Marcoux, Dawn Monroe and Lise Perron-Croteau, Ottawa: PAC, 1983.
Guide to Canadian Photographic Archives, Christopher Seifried, Ottawa: PAC, 1983.
Inventory of the Collections of the National Film, Television and Sound Archives, Jean T. Guenette and Jacques Gagne, Ottawa: PAC, 1984.
Tracing Your Ancestors in Canada, Patricia Kennedy and Janine Roy, Ottawa: PAC, 1983.

For more information on Public Archives of Canada publications you may contact: Public Archives of Canada, Publication Services, 395 Wellington Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KIA ON3, (613) 996-1473.